The Contribution of Isaac Newton to the Scientific Revolution

Isaac Newton’s contributions to the Scientific Revolution were many and included his mechanical universe and his universal laws. His Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica was possibly the most influential scientific book ever published. It contained his laws of motion, which formed the foundation of classical mechanics, as well as his law of universal gravitation. Many scholars also credit Newton with inventing calculus.

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Sir Isaac Newton Essays - The Contributions of Isaac Newton to The Scientific Revolution

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Such a transition was not easy, its course not straight and smooth. Many times the scientists who played a major role in the transition lost their enthusiasm, had doubts, and balked. Isaac Newton, for example, had been passionately engaged in alchemy (a medieval chemical science aiming to achieve the transmutation of base metals into gold), and the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) had to summon great inner strength to transform his thinking from animism (a doctrine that the vital principle of organic development is immaterial spirit) to what we call today “mechanistic” thinking, which holds that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by laws of physics and chemistry.

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During the Scientific Revolution thinkers also began to channel knowledge into rational systems. For example, in biology the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) devised the Linnean classification system, which catalogued all known living creatures into a system that defined their morphological (relating to form and structure) relations. In chemistry a new system of understanding chemicals and elements began when the English scientists Henry Cavendish and Joseph Priestley discovered gases during the latter half of the eighteenth century. In medicine physicians began to understand that the body is a natural system that functions predictably, like a machine. Disease is simply the breaking down of the machine. The science of pathology began, and physicians began to see disease—and recovery from disease—as a rational process.

He laid the groundwork for modern mathematics;his works were the primary teaching for both Descartes and Fermat;Isaac Newton also studied Vieta.

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From Copernicus' bold but simple claim, so the story goes, a complex series of new developments were necessary to support his view and, at the same time, to replace earlier beliefs. What was needed, at least in retrospect, were new astronomical observations, these now associated with Tycho Brahe (1546-1601); new theoretical modifications concerning planetary orbits and their motions, now associated with Johannes Kepler (1571-1630); and not least, new theories of motion that would accommodate a moving earth, these theories now associated with Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), René Descartes (1596-1650), Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695), and of course, Isaac Newton (1642-1727). The latter, by acclaim, joined heaven and earth by uniting terrestrial and celestial bodies under one set of universal laws of motion. Newton invented the universe. It displaced the traditional Aristotelian cosmos. This widely held view was due largely to the work of the historian Alexandre Koyré.

- Isaac Newton research papers examine one of the greatest minds in the history of science and leading figure of the scientific revolution.

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and ended in the late 18th century, with Isaac Newton, who proposed the three universal laws of motion, and proposed a mechanical universe.1 The scientific revolution lay a foundation for what is now modern science.

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Whilethe so-called Copernican Revolution is only a temporal --technically conceptual--subset of the Scientific Revolution (which might also include the KeplerianRevolution, the Cartesian Synthesis, the Newtonian Revolution), Kuhn'sfirst book gave rise to his highly influential essay, , which extended his historical insights intoa generalized and thoughtfully articulated philosophy and sociology ofknowledge (see below).

Biography Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Woolsthorpe, a small town near Grantham in Lincolnshire.

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Historians generally date the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, the period that produced the most remarkable advances made in Western science for more than a millennium, with the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) and his book De Revolutionibus (On the Revolutions) and date the ending with the English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton (1642–1727) and his book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).