Via Siberia-Alaska (15 kya by boat, 11 kya by land)
in Anatolia, Balkans, or Caucasus.
Monroe was James Madison’s Secretary of State. Monroe led a brutal repression of a slave revolt in 1800. All those slave-owning presidents were highly aware of what had happened in Haiti and wanted no threat that American slaves might actually rise up and free themselves. As governor of Virginia, Monroe refined the system of keeping the slaves suppressed and less likely to revolt. Monroe presided over the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which extended slavery to southern North America as the empire expanded westward. Madison and Jefferson both approved of the measure. Monroe was a Revolutionary War veteran, and he got back into uniform and led American forces during the War of 1812. He became Madison’s Secretary of War after the British burned Washington, D.C. Four of the first five American presidents were land-grabbing, slave-owning empire-builders.
, and Egypt comes under Roman rule the next year.
James Madison, who drafted the Bill of Rights, was president from 1809-1817, and as with Washington and Jefferson, he was another slave-owning, Virginian tobacco plantation owner, and the international embarrassment that those slave-owning presidents were accumulating began weighing heavily on their images, if not their hearts. As with the others, Madison tamely advocated slavery eventually becoming an extinct institution (long after he was gone), and was an early advocate of shipping freed slaves back to Africa. Later in life, he used novel reasoning to support the expansion of slavery to new lands as a way to “dilute” it. He died in 1836, without freeing any of his slaves. Europe began , and most of Europe abolished it before 1820, and the , especially with its many slave-owning presidents.