An Argument from Consciousness and Free Will (The …

What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of historical change.

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Phenomenal consciousness Essay – Free Papers and …

Free Altered States of Consciousness Essay Sample. …

If compensating for small sets of neurons is not a plausible functionfor consciousness, what might be? The commonsensical answer would bethat consciousness “tells” the organism about events inthe environment, or, in the case of pain and other proprioceptivesensations, about the state of the body. But this answer begs thequestion against opponents of attributing conscious states to animalsfor it fails to respect the distinction between phenomenalconsciousness and mere awareness (in the uncontroversial sense ofdetection) of environmental or bodily events. Opponents of attributingphenomenal consciousness to animals are not committed to denying themore general kind of consciousness of various external andbodily events, so there is no logical entailment from awareness ofthings in the environment or the body to animal sentience.

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Although he thinks that the intelligence displayed by theseexamples suggests conscious thought, many critics have beendisappointed by the lack of systematic connection between Griffin'sexamples and the attribution of consciousness (see, e.g., Alcock 1992).Griffin's main positiveproposal in this respect has been the rather implausible suggestionthat consciousness might have the function of compensating for limitedneural machinery. Thus Griffin is motivated to suggest thatconsciousness may be more important to honey bees than to humans.

Cabanac identifies a set of behavioral markers of consciousness, basedon this model structural and functional theory:
Does Consciousness Exist

The Ark of consciousness is revealed in the Gospel of Thomas in L

On the afternoon of that eventful day, I stood on the porch, dumb, expectant. I guessed vaguely from my mother's signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps. The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face. My fingers lingered almost unconsciously on the familiar leaves and blossoms which had just come forth to greet the sweet southern spring. I did not know what the future held of marvel or surprise for me. Anger and bitterness had preyed upon me continually for weeks and a deep languor had succeeded this passionate struggle.

What is Christ Consciousness

Consciousness - philosophical deadends. Homunculi, …

In the years since Husserl, Heidegger, et al. wrote,phenomenologists have dug into all these classical issues, includingintentionality, temporal awareness, intersubjectivity, practicalintentionality, and the social and linguistic contexts of humanactivity. Interpretation of historical texts by Husserl et al.has played a prominent role in this work, both because the texts arerich and difficult and because the historical dimension is itself partof the practice of continental European philosophy. Since the 1960s,philosophers trained in the methods of analytic philosophy have alsodug into the foundations of phenomenology, with an eye to20th century work in philosophy of logic, language, andmind.

Consciousness - Essay Prince

The End of History? - Francis Fukuyama

Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original "homeland of the world proletariat" - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred.