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Later, palaces appeared, and Sumerian palaces and their related elites are seen today as more of an intrusive dynamic from rural societies, as a kind of invasion and conquest rather than a natural outcome of Sumerian urban life. The elite arguably performed some kind of exchange function, but a common idea among anthropologists is that elites became elites , not because they performed a necessary societal function. In early cities, elites usually arose from new professional classes that created and controlled markets. In early Mesopotamian states, palace activities were largely centered around elite lifestyles, not administering state functions. Sumer was the first pristine state, and when , something like happened. They all had similar features, which included: male domination, divinely sanctioned heads of state with harems and other extravagances in their capital cities, including elite-aggrandizing monumental architecture, forced servitude, human sacrifice and/or public executions to terrorize the populace into submission, conscripted “cannon fodder” infantry led by elite officers, fortified cities, taxation, and so on. All pristine states passed through similar developmental stages, and some features appeared earlier or later than others, with minor variation among their attributes, but they all had remarkable resemblances, which probably reflected human “nature,” in which everywhere reacted to analogous economic conditions in comparable fashion.
Theory of Tourism Development Essay will be available on
Development: Essay on Human Development
These are the years through which the greatest physical and mental developments take place, in the respect of growing muscles and comprehending our existence as well as our developing consciousness....
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Liberal situationalist theories, on the other hand, seemed at first to provide conflict resolvers with grounds for optimism. By emphasizing the potency of social determinants rather than the intractability of individual instincts, they suggested that conflict behaviours might be altered by altering the external situation. Strict behaviourism (for an extreme example, see Skinner, 1965), relegated instincts and other internal mechanisms to a metaphorical "black box," postulating that, given a certain environment or situation, people would behave in predictable ways. Frustration-aggression theorists like Dollard (1980) reduced the aggressive instinct to a mere potential for destructive action, with primary attention focused on situations that activate this potential by frustrating goal-oriented activity. Social learning theory presented humans as cognising creatures whose ideas and attitudes were largely determined by social conditioning (Bandura, 1976). And much post-Freudian psychoanalytical theory moved analogously from the primacy of instinct to family- or culture-based situational determinism (Mitchell and Black, 1996).