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orchestra, with the exception of Boston, had 52 week employment. Boston, with Koussevitzky's development of the festival at Tanglewood achieved a 52 week season in 1947. New York and Philadelphia had less. In Philadelphia, the working season by 1944 was still only 32 weeks 60, plus an additional 8 weeks with the Robin Hood Dell concerts.

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There are so many instruments in the orchestra

What similarities and differences can one find between them

Scott was born in Brooklyn, New York on 18 May 1919. Moving with his family to the Philadelphia suburbs, he reluctantly began study of the double bass in the Cheltenham High School orchestra. Roger Scott often told the account that: "...he asked his teacher to approve an essay he had written for a Boy Scout music merit badge, and the teacher agreed only if the teenager would play bass in the school orchestra" 259. While still in High School in 1934 and 1935, he and some friends with his high school music teacher Walker D.

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Although Ozawa's health has been variable (reportedly due to esophageal cancer 109), Seiji Ozawa also continues an active guest conducting program. Seiji Ozawa throughout his career studied each of his scores intensively, and was regarded by his colleagues as always prepared in-depth. He also has an excellent musical memory. His conducting style is clean and transparent. Ozawa also has a remarkable depth of repertoire, including extended representation of contemporary compositions. 2004-2011 James Levine James Levine was born June 23, 1943 in that musical city of Cincinnati, Ohio. His father was a violinist who lead a dance band, and his mother had studied with Martha Graham. Levine began piano study at age 4 73, and was something of a prodigy. At age 10, he played the Mendelssohn Second Piano Concerto at a Cincinnati Symphony youth concert. Also at age 10, Levine began study with Walter Levin, first violin of the LaSalle Quartet, then quartet-in-residence in Cincinnati. (Walter Levin apparently initially said "the ten-year-old has not been born that I would teach".) In the summer of 1956, at age 13, Levine studied at Rudolf Serkin's Marlboro Music School in Vermont. The next summer, in 1957, Levine attended the Aspen Music School in Colorado, where he studied with with pianist Rosina Lhévinne (1880-1976), even though Levine had already settled on conducting as a career. His relationship with Rosina Lhévinne continued over the next decades. In 1961, Levine entered the Juilliard School, where he studied conducting with Jean Morel (1903-1975). James Levine graduated from Juilliard in 1964, just before his twenty-first birthday. In later years, James Levine said that the three most influential persons on his musical development were Walter Levin, Rosina Lhévinne, and Jean Morel. Levine thought that Jean Morel was perhaps not one of the great conductors, but a very good teacher of preparation and conducting technique 73. In 1964-1965 season, Levine studied with George Szell and the Cleveland Orchestra, where he became assistant conductor to Szell 1965-1970. In 1971, Levine succeeded Seiji Ozawa as Music Director of Chicago's Ravinia Festival. From 1971-1994, for twenty-three seasons, James Levine was Music Director of the Ravinia Festival each summer, being succeeded in turn by Christoph Eschenbach. During this period, 1974-1978, Levine was also Music Director of the Cincinnati May Festival in his home town. Levine made his Metropolitan Opera debut in the summer of 1971, with an acclaimed performance of Tosca, followed by return engagements. Then, in the 1973-1974 season, Levine was appointed Principal Conductor of the Metropolitan Opera. Levine was further offered the Music Director position of the Metropolitan Opera by Schuyler Chapin, then General Manager, but with the stipulation that Chapin would reserve artistic decisions, as Sir Rudolf Bing had done 73. James Levine is said to have considered such an arrangement unworkable. The situation evolved, including the departure of Chapin. Then, for the 1976-1977 season, James Levine was appointed Music Director of the Metropolitan Opera, a position Levine still holds. In this position, it can be said that Levine has more total authority at the Metropolitan Opera than even Arturo Toscanini did with Gatti-Casazza from 1908-1915. At the MET, Levine has every year improved the working conditions and the quality of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra. Levine gradually added co-Principals in each of the orchestra sections, so as to reduce the heavy weekly work load of the Principal musicians. This, and the improvement of salaries and conditions allowed the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra to hire the best musicians, and to improve overall performance quality. With the virtuoso level of his orchestra, Levine also began a regular series of successful concert programs by the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra at Carnegie Hall. This was not the first time the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra had given purely orchestral concerts, but it was judged by critics to have achieved a new level of organization and quality in this orchestral series. James Levine first conducted the Boston Symphony in 1972. James Levine became the fourteenth Music Director of the Boston Symphony in the 2004-2005 season. Since his appointment in Boston, Levine has suffer health problems, including surgery in 2008 and 2009. Most serious was lengthy spinal surgery in April, 2010. However, James Levine made a triumphant return to open the 2010-2011 Boston Symphony season on October 2, 2010 125. Unfortunately, it was not to last, and the spinal problems continued, forcing James Levine to resign as Music Director of the Boston Symphony in March, 2011. 2014- Andris Nelsons Andris Nelsons - photo: Stu Rosner, Boston Herald On May 16, 2013, the Boston Symphony announced that Andris Nelsons would become the next Music Director of the Boston Symphony beginning in the 2014-2015 season. Andris Nelsons was born on November 18, 1978 in Riga, Latvia when it was still a part of the Soviet Union. During the 2013-2014 Boston season, Nelsons has been the "Music Director Designate". Nelsons mother and step-father were both musicians, and Nelsons early in his training pursued piano, trumpet and singing. He then entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory where he studied conducting with Alexander Titov. In 2002, Nelsons later studied with Mariss Jansons whom Nelsons considers a mentor. In 2003, Nelsons became Principal Conductor of the Latvian National Opera, where he continued for four seasons. In 2006, Nelsons became Chief Conductor of the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie of Herford, Germany, where he continued for three seasons. Beginning in 2008, Andris Nelsons has been the Music Director of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra.

Principal Musicians of the Philadelphia Orchestra since 1900

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