Also like Descartes, he thinks of the self as a thing thatthinks.

(Note thatin these cases differences as well as similarities may be found, but I amhere choosing only to address the similarities.)Locke's notion of the is one example of a term borrowed fromDescartes.

René Descartes: The Mind-Body Distinction

In fact,I believe there are many points of agreement between Locke and Descartes.

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In its turn mind is a totally different substance, which according to Descartes is “invisible, without dimensions, immaterial, unchanging, indivisible and without limit” [4]. Thus, it is necessary to emphasize that no matter what elements dualists were studying there were only two of them that they referred to.

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This simile touches base on a number of philosophical ideas which Plato developed over the progression of The Republic (Plato, G.M.A Grube, 1993), the most noticeable being the dividing line.

This echoes the distinction made by Descartesabout the qualities of wax.

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After Descartes left the army, in 1619, his whereabouts for the nextfew years are unknown. Based on what he says in the Discours de laMethode (Discourse on the Method), published in 1637,there is speculation that he spent time near Ulm (Descartes apparentlyattended the coronation of Ferdinand II in Frankfurt in 1619). There issome evidence suggesting that he was in France in 1622, for itwas at this time that property he had inherited was sold—the proceedsof which would provide him a simple income for many years. There issome speculation that between 1623 and 1625 he visited Italy. Descartesemerges in 1625 in Paris, his notes revealing that he was in contactwith Father Marin Mersenne (1588–1648), a member of the Order ofMinims. This relationship would prompt Descartes to make public histhoughts on natural philosophy (science). It is by way of Mersenne thatDescartes' work would find its way into the hands of some of the bestminds living in Paris--for instance, Antoine Arnauld (1612–1694), PierreGassendi (1592–1655), and Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679).

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He moved to Germany for further military service. In November 1619, while lodging at Ulm, Descartes experienced three intense dreams narrated by his early biographer Adrien Baillet in La Vie de M. Descartes (1691). This episode created in him the belief that he was destined to complete an encyclopaedia of the sciences. His enthusiasm for mathematics was accompanied by such developing themes as the light of reason, which is more complex in his vocabulary than contemporary usage denotes.

Inboth Descartes and Locke, I see precursors for theories of the importance ofreason and language.

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I am indebted to the NEH for allowing me the opportunity to participatein the 2000 NEH Summer Seminar, “Descartes and His Contemporaries,”held at Virgina Tech. In addition to learning a great deal from theSeminar's leaders, Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber, I learned a greatdeal from my fellow participants. I am also indebted to BloomsburgUniversity of Pennsylvania for providing me with a Faculty DevelopmentGrant, summer 2001. Lastly, I am indebted to Alan Nelson and RogerAriew for comments on earlier versions of this article.

It is theirdifferences, not similarities, which characterize their overall theories ofknowledge.

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Soon after, and that same year, Voetius caused the French philosopher to be summoned by the municipal council of Utrecht; Descartes was expected to answer the charge of libel against Voetius. Descartes was not living in Utrecht, and he complained at the nature of the summons. He took advice to contact the French ambassador to the Hague, and via that channel, to request the Prince of Orange to intervene on his behalf. Descartes was successful in this recourse, and the Utrecht magistrates accordingly closed the case (ibid:242-3).

Ifknowledge cannot come from experience of the outside world, then it mustcome from within.

Philosophy Essays: Mind Body Dualism

In 1618 Descartes opted for military enlistment, moving to the Netherlands where he joined the army of Prince Maurice of Nassau. He has often been described as a soldier; some sources suggest that he served as an engineer, using his educated talent. That same year he encountered at Breda the Dutch mathematician Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637), described as "an enthusiastic scientific amateur" who "introduced Descartes to some of the new currents in science, the newly revived atomist ideas, and the attempt to combine mathematics and physics" (D. Garber, "Rene Descartes: 1 Life," ).