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On this subject some things that appear to me strange have, as I am told, been maintained by certain Greeks who are accounted as philosophers, and are so skilled in sophistry that there is nothing which they cannot seem to prove. Some of them hold that very intimate friendships are to be avoided; that there is no need that one feel solicitude for others; that it is enough and more than enough to take care of your own concerns, and annoying to be involved to any considerable extent in affairs not belonging to you; that the best way is to have the reins of friendship as loose as possible, so that you can tighten them or let them go at pleasure; for, according to them, ease is the chief essential to happy living, and this the mind cannot enjoy, if it bears, as it were, the pains of travail in behalf of a larger or smaller circle of friends. Others, I am told, with even much less of true human feeling, teach what I touched upon briefly a little while ago, that friendships are to be sought for defence and help, not on account of good-will and affection. The less of self-confidence and the less of strength one has, the more is he inclined to make friends. Thus it is that women seek the support of friendship more than men do, the poor more than the rich, the unfortunate more than those who seem happy. Oh, pre-eminent wisdom! It is like taking the sun out of the world, to bereave human life of friendship, than which the immortal gods have given man nothing better, nothing more gladdening. What is the ease of which they speak? It is indeed pleasing in aspect, but on many occasions it is to be renounced; for it is not fitting, in order to avoid solicitude, either to refuse to undertake any right cause or act, or to drop it after it is undertaken. If we flee from care, we must flee from virtue, which of necessity with no little care spurns and abhors its opposites, as goodness spurns and abhors wickedness; temperance, excess; courage, cowardice. Thus you may see that honest men are excessively grieved by the dishonest, the brave by the pusillanimous, those who lead sober lives by the dissolute. It is indeed characteristic of a well-ordered mind to rejoice in what is good and to be grieved by the opposite. If, then, pain of mind fall to the lot of a wise man, as it must of necessity unless we imagine his mind divested of its humanity, why should we take friendship wholly out of life, lest we experience some little trouble on account of it? Yet more; if emotion be eliminated, what difference is there, I say not between a man and a brute, but between a man and a rock, or the trunk of a tree, or any inanimate object? Nor are those to be listened to, who regard virtue as something hard and iron-like. As in many other matters, so in friendship, it is tender and flexible, so that it expands, as it were, with a friend’s well-being, and shrinks when his peace is disturbed. Therefore the pain which must often be incurred on a friend’s account is not of sufficient moment to banish friendship from human life, any more than the occasional care and trouble which the virtues bring should be a reason for renouncing them.

Essay on Cicero on Friendship Analysis - 1048 Words

Lastly, a friendship based on goodness is the desire to see the other do better and succeed....

Cicero's essays on old age and friendship - Internet Archive

The first portion of either text involves an action or a springing intoexistence, being a separation into Goodness, and this is followed by a"behavior" or service to God in which the substance of affection isbeholden to the species. This "beholden-ness" is not only a contract,but a "beholding" of the species by instinct. In Cicero’sformulation Friendship springs from "a certain instinctive feeling of Love,combined with an inclination of the heart" – this inclination being notonly a service to God, but a return to God. The whole thing is a"doing" – the greatest doing of what is Upright and Good. It is botha moral choice and a spiritual state of being. At the end of time this is"counted" as Righteousness or Virtue. To be "counted" or"reckoned" is the same as the "calculation of advantage" bywhich mankind is judged. advantage is counted as Evil, while advantage is counted as Righteousness. When God "sets before" man ablessing and a curse, this is the same as saying that there are two kinds ofmen: those who are blessed, and those who are cursed. The blessed have separatedthemselves from the "habitations of the men of Evil," in spirit and bytheir "inborn behavior." They have "prepared a way" thatculminates in a "return to the Law of God" at the end of time. Thecalculation of "advantage" (Latin root: "from before") –be it by nature fallen, or in spirit blessed – is a final . Itis a Last Judgement by which mankind is redeemed.

made no little use of a now lost essay of Theophrastus on Friendship

There occurs here a question by no means difficult, whether at any time new friends worthy of our love are to be preferred to the old, as we are wont to prefer young horses to those that have passed their prime. Shame that there should be hesitation as to the answer! There ought to be no satiety of friendships, as there is rightly of many other things. The older a friendship is, the more precious should it be, as is the case with wines that will bear keeping; and there is truth in the proverb, that many pecks of salt must be eaten together to bring friendship to perfection. If new friendships offer the hope of fruit, like the young shoots in the grain-field that give promise of harvest, they are not indeed to be spurned; yet the old are to be kept in their place. There is very great power in long habit. To recur to the horse, there is no one who would not rather use the horse to which he has become accustomed, if he is still sound, than one unbroken and new. Nor has habit this power merely as to the movements of an animal; it prevails no less as to inanimate objects. We are charmed with the places, though mountainous and woody, where we have made a long sojourn. But what is most remarkable in friendship is that it puts a man on an equality with his inferior. For there often are in a circle of friends those who excel the rest, as was the case with Scipio in our flock, if I may use the word. He never assumed superiority over Philus, never over Rupilius, never over Mummius, never over friends of an order lower than his own. Indeed he always reverenced as a superior, because older than himself, his brother Quintus Maximus, a thoroughly worthy man, but by no means his equal; and in fact he wanted to make all his friends of the more consequence by whatever advantages he himself possessed. This example all ought to imitate, that if they have attained any superiority of virtue, genius, fortune, they may impart it to and share it with those with whom they are the most closely connected; and that if they are of humble parentage, and have kindred of slender ability or fortune, they may increase their means of well-being, and reflect honor and worth upon them, — as in fable those who were long in servile condition through ignorance of their parentage and race, when they were recognized and found to be sons either of gods or of kings, retained their love for the shepherds whom for many years they supposed to be their fathers. Much more ought the like to be done in the case of real and well-known fathers; for the best fruit of genius, and virtue, and every kind of excellence is reaped when it is thus bestowed on near kindred and friends.

The importance of friendship cannot just be forgotten like a snap of one’s fingers.
to Cicero De Amicitia (On Friendship) made no little use of a now lost essay of Theophrastus on Friendship.

Short Paragraphs About Friendship Free Essays - …

When he died, I attached myself to Scaevola the Pontifex, whom I may ventureto call quite the most distinguished of our countrymen for ability anduprightness. But of this latter I shall take other occasions to speak. [Theyounger Scaevola would have been about sixty when Cicero was sixteen or so, in90 BCE, but the elder Scaevola lived to at least 88 BCE, when he first tells theyoung Cicero about Friendship. The elder Scaevola and his contemporary statesmanAntonius died violent deaths in the civil war that raged in those years. It isknown that Antonius was killed in 87 BCE, when a rogue army (commanded byMarius, see below) sacked Rome. It’s possible that the elder Scaevola alsodied violently.]

Aristotle understood the importance of friendship, books VIII and IX of the Nicomachean Ethics deal solely with this topic.

Cicero friendship essay essay on aging population in …

Now the qualities we ought to look out for in making our selection arefirmness, stability, constancy. There is a plentiful lack of men so endowed, andit is difficult to form a judgment without testing. Now this testing can only bemade during the actual existence of the friendship; for friendship so oftenprecedes the formation of a judgment, and makes a previous test impossible. [Or,as Cicero advises in section 22: "don’t put the cart before thehorse!" The horse symbolism is also present in the next few lines.]

Friendships based on two people’s usefulness to each other are considered by Aristotle to be the lowest form of friendship (Aristotle 220)....

Friendship essay introduction | Ricky Martin



They were the glory of the race of rangers,
Matchless with horse, rifle, song, supper, courtship,
Large, turbulent, generous, handsome, proud, and affectionate,
Bearded, sunburnt, drest in the free costume of hunters,
Not a single one over thirty years of age.