Read this essay on Place Attachment- Rio de Janeiro
Barriers to Ethnography; Dimensions of Place Attachment;
Traumatized children need boundaries too. Make your expectations very clear and the reasonable consequences if these expectations aren't met. However in the case of dealing with an abused or neglected child it's important to understand that they may be emotionally and socially delayed. Have realistic expectations of the child that are based on the emotional age not necessarily the chronological age. Be consistent yet flexible with the consequences. This demonstrates reason, fairness and understanding to the child. Positive rewards may be helpful however, physical punishment is never appropriate. Allowing children choices gives them a sense of control and gives them decision-making power. It would be wise, however, to limit their choices to two or three at most. Parents have the added responsibility of being aware of their child's limitations and protecting them from situations that may be too upsetting or traumatizing. For example, if the parent observes that a particular activity or situation increases the child's stress and anxiety, then avoiding these can prevent major "melt-downs" and reduce the possibility of re-traumatizing the child. (10, 11)
and levy place attachment theory
At this point, the adolescent needs their parents the most, even though the adolescent is trying to become independent from the parents.In conclusion, friendship attachments are important during adolescence because they are sources of emotional security and support, contexts for growth in social competence, and prototypes for later relationships (Seiffge-Krenke, 1993).Parents have important effects on their child's attachment system.