The most important turning point was the renaissance.

Even so, one can talk about Rococo qualities in a work of sculpture - informality, gaiety, a concern for matters of the heart and a self-conscious avoidance of seriousness.

During the Renaissance the main focus was the study of people.

Leonardo da Vinci was a huge part of the advancement in Science, with his inventions and theories.

Major artists created art mainly in these three.

It is fairly certain that Spanish king Philip II did not want or intend to rule England as part of the Spanish empire - or to make English people speak Spanish.

Is it the finest post-Renaissance ?

Throughout literary history, many great critics have pointed out that it is artificial to make a distinction between form and content, except for purposes of analytical discussion. Form determines content. Content determines form. The issue is, indeed, usually only raised at all by those critics who are more interested in politics, religion, or ideology than in literature; thus, they object to writers who they feel sacrifice ideological orthodoxy for formal perfection, message for style.

Look through Frederick Hartt,  for examples of paintings [BOOK ON RESERVE: ART LIBRARY].

In particular, note the impact of on modern sculptors of the .

After an unknown catastrophe (probably earthquake) around 1500 BCE, the Minoan collapsed, and Crete was conquered by the Myceneans from the Greek mainland, who were themselves overcome and the city of Mycenae destroyed around 1100 BCE.

Let history have the final say on this multi-millionaire artist.

In the plastic arts, famous sculptors like (5th century BCE), (Active 480-444 BCE), and (c.488-431 BCE) (see his work at the ) achieved a level of realism - further developed by later artists such as (Active 432-408 BCE), (Active 395-350 BCE), (c.395-305 BCE), (Active 375-335 BCE), and (Active 340-320 BCE) - which would remain unsurpassed until the Italian Renaissance.

- Arthur Dove Research Paper examines the style, and influences of this artist.

In summary, represented the high-point of monumental religious art.

Extended prose fiction is the latest of the literary forms to develop. We have romances from classical Greek times that are as long as short novels; but they are really tales of adventure — vastly extended anecdotes. The first prose fiction of any psychological depth is the attributed to Petronius Arbiter (died AD 65/66). Though it survives only in fragments, supposedly one-eleventh of the whole, even these would indicate that it is one of the greatest picaresque novels, composed of loosely connected episodes of robust and often erotic adventure. The other great surviving fiction of classical times is the (known as ) by Apuleius (2nd century AD). In addition to being a picaresque adventure story, it is a criticism of Roman society, a celebration of the religion of Isis, and an allegory of the progress of the soul. It contains the justly celebrated story of Cupid and Psyche, a myth retold with psychological subtlety. Style has much to do with the value and hence the survival of these two works. They are written in prose of extraordinary beauty, although it is by no means of “classical” purity. The prose romances of the Middle Ages are closely related to earlier heroic literature. Some, like Sir Thomas Malory’s fifteenth-century are retellings of heroic legend in terms of the romantic chivalry of the early Renaissance, a combination of barbaric, medieval, and Renaissance sensibility which, in the tales of Tristram and Isolt and Lancelot and Guinevere, produced something not unlike modern novels of tragic love.

"Renaissance Art and Architecture," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2000

If you are a Martin Luther fan, this site is for you!

The latter half of the twentieth century has seen an even greater change in popular literature. Writing is a static medium: that is to say, a book is read by one person at a time; it permits recollection and anticipation; the reader can go back to check a point or move ahead to find out how the story ends. In radio, television, and the cinema the medium is fluent; the audience is a collectivity and is at the mercy of time. It cannot pause to reflect or to understand more fully without missing another part of the action, nor can it go back or forward. Marshall McLuhan in his book (1964) became famous for erecting a whole structure of aesthetic, sociological, and philosophical theory upon this fact. But it remains to be seen whether the new, fluent materials of communication are going to make so very many changes in civilization, let alone in the human mind — mankind has, after all, been influenced for thousands of years by the popular, fluent arts of music and drama. Even the most transitory television serial was written down before it was performed, and the script can be consulted in the files. Before the invention of writing, all literature was fluent because it was contained in people’s memory. In a sense it was more fluent than music, because it was harder to remember. Man in mass society becomes increasingly a creature of the moment, but the reasons for this are undoubtedly more fundamental than his forms of entertainment.

One central effect of the Renaissance was the production of a new intellectual idea: humanism.

Let’s take a short step to look at what is the Renaissance.

Thereafter it developed according to the traditional chronology of Greek art during , as follows: Archaic Period (c.650-500 BCE); Classical Period (c.500-323 BCE); and Hellenistic Period (c.323-100 BCE).